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Chap 14

Early in the struggle to win Kansas, proslavery supporters
1. provided an excellent example of how the legal and orderly implementation of popular sovereignty might take place.
2. got no support from the presidential administration of Millard Fillmore.
3. from out of state invaded Kansas, to control the election through fraud and intimidation.
4. saw that the cause was lost and retreated from the contest.
from out of state invaded Kansas, to control the election through fraud and intimidation

Support for the Wilmot Proviso of 1846 came from
1. Northerners desiring either the abolition of slavery altogether or those Northerners who wanted to reserve new lands for white settlers.
2. Southerners who had concluded that it was futile to press for slavery’s expansion into an area where it could not flourish.
3. Southerners who could not afford to relocate their agricultural operations to the West.
4. Northerners and Southerners who were morally opposed to slavery
Northerners desiring either the abolition of slavery altogether or those Northerners who wanted to reserve new lands for white settlers

The only persons who do not have a revolver and a knife are those who have two revolvers” is a quote describing
1. the environment in one of Stephen A. Douglas’s favorite taverns.
2. a popular local contest for woodsmen in Anderson, South Carolina, in the mid-nineteenth century.
3. the environment of the U.S. Congress early in 1860 as congressmen struggled to elect a Speaker of the House.
4. the state of affairs at a typical nineteenth-century horse-racing track.
the environment of the U.S. Congress early in 1860 as congressmen struggled to elect a Speaker of the House.

The slave states of the Upper South were not as quick to secede from the Union after Lincoln’s election because
1. they generally believed the North would quickly send invading armies to the Upper South.
2. the U.S. army had already assembled on the northern bank of the Potomac River as a persuasive deterrent to secession.
3. they had great difficulty in getting together a quorum of legislators to debate the issue.
4. they simply did not have as great a stake in slavery as the states in the Lower South.
they simply did not have as great a stake in slavery as the states in the Lower South

In the debate of 1849-1850 that led to the Compromise of 1850, the major issue was
1. the balance of power between the North and the South in Congress.
2. whether or not the North, which had a greater manufacturing sector than the South, should be more heavily taxed for road construction.
3. whether or not the nation should engage in a civil war.
4. tariffs and interstate commerce regulations.
the balance of power between the North and the South in Congress.

In the 1857 Dred Scott decision, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that
1. the Missouri Compromise was constitutional.
2. Congress had the power to prohibit slavery in the territories.
3. black people in the United States could be declared citizens under certain circumstances.
4. Dred Scott could not legally claim violation of his constitutional rights because he was not a citizen of the United States
Dred Scott could not legally claim violation of his constitutional rights because he was not a citizen of the United States

Seeking to reduce the fear of many Southerners that the newly elected Abraham Lincoln and the Republican Party meant to tamper with slavery,
1. Robert Toombs wrote, “The Republicans have pledged to respect our slave property and I know them as honorable men.”
2. Alexander Stephens wrote, “Revolutions are much easier started than controlled. I consider slavery much more secure in the Union than out of it.”
3. James Henry Hammond wrote, “Abraham Lincoln is no abolitionist, that I am certain of.”
4. Howell Cobb wrote, “Abraham Lincoln has given me his personal assurance that our most cherished institution is safe in the arms of a Republican administration
Alexander Stephens wrote, “Revolutions are much easier started than controlled. I consider slavery much more secure in the Union than out of it

John Brown’s leadership of a massacre at Pottawatomie Creek, Kansas, led to
1. guerrilla war engulfing the territory.
2. an increase in the number of proslavery demonstrations nationwide.
3. the realization of the need for a revote on the popular sovereignty issue.
4. government troops declaring martial law in the territory
guerrilla war engulfing the territory

In 1860, Democrats meeting to choose a presidential candidate in Charleston, South Carolina, wound up
1. selecting Jefferson Davis as their candidate.
2. deadlocked over their choice for seventy-two ballots.
3. splitting the party into southern and northern factions over the issues of popular sovereignty and a federal code protecting slavery in the territories.
4. agreeing unanimously on Stephen A. Douglas
splitting the party into southern and northern factions over the issues of popular sovereignty and a federal code protecting slavery in the territories

In his first inaugural address, Abraham Lincoln was
1. rather belligerent toward Southerners, threatening to unleash the army on them if any more states seceded from the Union.
2. clearly uncomfortable with the principles he espoused regarding the Union.
3. reassuring and conciliatory toward the South on the issue of slavery but firm and inflexible concerning the perpetuity of the Union.
4. waiting until the last minute for word about the latest conditions in the South before he delivered his speech.
reassuring and conciliatory toward the South on the issue of slavery but firm and inflexible concerning the perpetuity of the Union

In his dissenting opinion in the 1857 Dred Scott case, Justice Benjamin R. Curtis argued that
1. Dred Scott was free, he was a citizen only of the state of Missouri, and the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional. 0%
2. Dred Scott was free, the Missouri Compromise was constitutional, and northern blacks were nominal citizens who must pass a revised examination to become full citizens under the Constitution.
3. Dred Scott was free, he was a citizen of the United States, and the Missouri Compromise was constitutional.
4. while the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional, every person born in America had the right to bring suit in any court in the land.
Dred Scott was free, he was a citizen of the United States, and the Missouri Compromise was constitutiona

In 1853, the United States negotiated the Gadsden Purchase in order to
1. secure mining rights in the Southwest.
2. support the dream of a southern route for the transcontinental railroad.
3. remove troublesome Native Americans from the area ceded by Mexico.
4. set up James Gadsden as territorial governor and possible presidential candidate.
support the dream of a southern route for the transcontinental railroad.

The Dred Scott decision increased sectional tension by
1. strengthening the Democratic Party by unifying its northern and southern branches.
2. seeming to indicate clearly that the issue of slavery could be determined in any territory long before the moment of statehood.
3. giving credence to the belief in the North that a Slave Power conspiracy existed and was laboring to subvert northern liberties.
4. precipitating the resignation of Supreme Court justices from the North.
giving credence to the belief in the North that a Slave Power conspiracy existed and was laboring to subvert northern liberties

While Abraham Lincoln espoused a typical racial attitude for a white man of his day, he personally believed that slavery
1. was morally wrong.
2. was an institution dangerously misunderstood by most Northerners.
3. would be acceptable with a few humane modification
4. should be allowed to expand into the territories but be abolished where it already existed
was morally wrong

In 1860, Abraham Lincoln was elected president because he had
1. a majority of the popular vote and strong support in the free states.
2. some support in the slave states and strong support in the free states despite unified opposition.
3. some support in all parts of the nation.
4. strong support in the free states despite winning only 39 percent of the national popular vote
strong support in the free states despite winning only 39 percent of the national popular vote

Targeting the central issues of his debates—slavery and freedom—Stephen A. Douglas tried to depict Abraham Lincoln as
1. an avid supporter of the Fugitive Slave Act.
2. pandering to public sentiment by insisting that slavery was wrong, something that Douglas claimed Lincoln did not really believe.
3. uninformed on some of the key issues pertinent to their debates.
4. an abolitionist and color-blind egalitarian who loved blacks
an abolitionist and color-blind egalitarian who loved blacks

In the mid-1850s, Abraham Lincoln typified
1. Republican ideology in asserting that only individual slave owners, and not Congress, could stop the spread of slaver
2. the legal profession, of which he was a part, in believing that the Supreme Court should end slavery.
3. the white northern male belief that although slavery was not morally wrong, it would eventually destroy national unity and should thus be eliminated.
4. Republican ideology in believing that Congress must stop the spread of slavery and put it on the course to extinction
Republican ideology in believing that Congress must stop the spread of slavery and put it on the course to extinction

The American Party, or Know-Nothings, appeared in the mid-1850s as
1. a reaction to large numbers of Roman Catholics coming to the United States from Germany and Ireland.
2. a political organization designed to include all Americans.
3. an organization advocating equal rights for all immigrants.
4. part of the movement to bind together Americans who had grown apart because of the continuing controversy over slavery
a reaction to large numbers of Roman Catholics coming to the United States from Germany and Ireland.

As a result of the Lincoln-Douglas debates,
1. Abraham Lincoln scored a landslide victory against Stephen A. Douglas and became a U.S. senator.
2. Stephen A. Douglas scored a landslide victory against Abraham Lincoln and became a U.S. senator.
3. Stephen A. Douglas won a senate seat, but Abraham Lincoln became nationally known.
4. the Democrats shunned Stephen A. Douglas
Stephen A. Douglas won a senate seat, but Abraham Lincoln became nationally known

The Mexican-American War
1. became a wedge that divided the nation based on the issue of slavery in the territories.
2. gave rise to the Peace Democrats.
3. convinced Americans that continuing to support military heroes as presidential candidates was unwise.
4. awakened the South to the realization that slavery could never survive in the Southwest.
became a wedge that divided the nation based on the issue of slavery in the territories

The Plains Indians who lived in what became Nebraska were
1. moved north into Canada.
2. pushed farther west.
3. concentrated on reservations in Nebraska and Kansas.
4. moved east to live in Iowa
pushed farther west

Ultimately, John Brown’s raid on Harpers Ferry, Virginia,
1. caused southern congressmen to propose tighter restrictions on all Northerners wishing to enter the South.
2. motivated the federal government to remove the arsenal from the community.
3. influenced dozens of slave uprisings.
4. left an increasing number of southern whites to conclude that many Northerners wanted to end slavery with violence.
left an increasing number of southern whites to conclude that many Northerners wanted to end slavery with violence

As the battle over the expansion of slavery intensified in the 1840s, Senator Lewis Cass of Michigan proposed the doctrine of “popular sovereignty,” a measure that would allow
1. a vote by Supreme Court justices to decide whether or not territories might sanction slavery.
2. people who settled the territories to decide whether or not they wanted slavery.
3. a national referendum on the issue of slavery expansion.
4. a special congressional commission to decide slavery’s fate in the territories.
people who settled the territories to decide whether or not they wanted slavery

When proslavery forces in Lecompton, Kansas, drafted a proslavery constitution in 1857 that many felt was fraudulent, Stephen A. Douglas
1. refrained from making any public statements concerning the framework of the Kansas government.
2. stood solidly behind southern Democrats and President James Buchanan in supporting the document.
3. demanded that the votes be recounted before he would take a stand on that issue.
4. broke with the Buchanan administration and the southern members of his party by coming out against the proslavery constitution.
broke with the Buchanan administration and the southern members of his party by coming out against the proslavery constitution.

The Wilmot Proviso of 1846 proposed that
1. slavery be prohibited in California but allowed in the remainder of the area ceded by Mexico.
2. any slaves taken in the area ceded by Mexico be freed at age twenty-eight.
3. slavery be prohibited throughout the entire area ceded by Mexico.
4. slavery be allowed to expand only into the area below the southern boundary of Missouri ceded by Mexico
slavery be prohibited throughout the entire area ceded by Mexico

Southerners felt so much hostility toward the Republican Party during the presidential election of 1860 that they
1. burned Lincoln in effigy in most major areas of the South.
2. passed temporary laws allowing women to vote in the hope of defeating the Republicans.
3. refused to allow Lincoln’s name to appear on the ballot in ten of the fifteen slave states.
4. boycotted the polls in numerous states.
refused to allow Lincoln’s name to appear on the ballot in ten of the fifteen slave states

As the secession crisis loomed over the final weeks of the presidential administration of James Buchanan, his response was to
1. remain in Washington and do nothing.
2. call several special sessions of Congress to deal with the circumstances.
3. prod Congress to beef up the military in case there was a war.
4. spur the Supreme Court into action to get a ruling on secession before Lincoln took office.
remain in Washington and do nothing

The common thread that wove together northern men into the Republican Party in 1854 was their
1. belief that citizenship was too easily achieved by ill-prepared foreigners.
2. opposition to the extension of slavery into any territory of the United States.
3. conviction that the federal government should do much more to implement social reform in the nation.
4. belief that Congress should move quickly to abolish slavery where it existed.
opposition to the extension of slavery into any territory of the United States

Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin (1852) influenced Northerners’ attitudes toward slavery
1. by including some of the earliest research showing scientific evidence of the effects of slavery on those enslaved.
2. by suggesting that the federal government should pay the fair market value for all slaves and then relocate them west of the Mississippi River.
3. by arguing that the North was in no way responsible for the institution of slavery.
4. because it was a compelling novel and a vehicle for a stirring moral indictment of slavery.
because it was a compelling novel and a vehicle for a stirring moral indictment of slavery.

In the national crisis surrounding the presidential election of 1860, southern moderates refused to support the more radical members of the Democratic Party clamoring for a federal slave code. Instead, they
1. organized the Constitutional Union Party and put forth an extensive platform much different from anything offered by the Republicans and Democrats.
2. joined Republicans in an effort to preserve the Union.
3. attempted to revive the Whig Party.
4. organized the Constitutional Union Party, a political party that had no platform.
organized the Constitutional Union Party, a political party that had no platform.

Abraham Lincoln became the Republican candidate for president in the election of 1860 because
1. he supported high tariffs and a Pacific railroad, and had begun denouncing the South for the sin of slavery.
2. he threatened to lead his own party-splitting exodus if the party did not nominate him.
3. he was a moderate on the volatile issue of slavery, demonstrated solid Republican credentials, and represented the crucial state of Illinois.
4. fellow Republicans Edward Bates and Salmon P. Chase lobbied the nominating committee to select Lincoln.
he was a moderate on the volatile issue of slavery, demonstrated solid Republican credentials, and represented the crucial state of Illinois.

John Brown’s raid on Harper’s Ferry
1. demonstrated the determination of some abolitionists.
2. demonstrated the shortcomings of popular sovereignty.
3. helped to unify Northerners and Southerners against Brown’s violent actions.
4. reassured Southerners about the safety of slavery.
demonstrated the determination of some abolitionists.

In what became known as the Freeport Doctrine, Stephen A. Douglas argued that
1. halting the spread of an institution as economically valuable as slavery would cause dire financial consequences for the United States.
2. the democratic foundations of the United States made it impossible for a Supreme Court decision to supersede the implementation of a concept such as popular sovereignty.
3. Northerners need not worry about the effect of the Dred Scott decision on the future of slavery in the territories, because the decision would very likely be reversed in the near future.
4. even though settlers could not, at that time, pass legislation barring slavery in the territories, they could ban slavery just as effectively by not passing the police laws necessary to protect slave property.
even though settlers could not, at that time, pass legislation barring slavery in the territories, they could ban slavery just as effectively by not passing the police laws necessary to protect slave property.

In 1854, Stephen A. Douglas sponsored the Kansas-Nebraska Act and included a section repealing the Missouri Compromise because
1. he agreed with the arguments of proslavery theorists about the best way to organize southern society.
2. he needed southern support to pass his legislation, the price of which was opening up the Nebraska territory to the possibility of slavery.
3. unbeknownst to his colleagues and constituents, Douglas pocketed large sums of money from southern legislators in return for supporting their causes.
4. he had never supported the Missouri Compromise in the first place.
he needed southern support to pass his legislation, the price of which was opening up the Nebraska territory to the possibility of slavery.

In the high-stakes debates surrounding the Compromise of 1850, Senator William H. Seward of New York stunned Congress and disagreed with Daniel Webster and Henry Clay when he
1. suggested that the North ought to secede from the Union if a proslavery president should happen to be elected in 1852.
2. announced that it was no longer possible to work in any fruitful way with Southerners in Congress.
3. stated that there was “a higher law than the Constitution”—the law of God.
4. advocated that the North marshal all its resources to stop slavery expansion in the territories and to roll back the institution of slavery where it already existed.
stated that there was “a higher law than the Constitution”—the law of God.

When reflecting on John Brown’s raid on the arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia, most Northerners
1. applauded the actions of this intrepid foe of slavery.
2. concluded that his ideals couldn’t excuse violence.
3. stated that they were sorry they had not contributed money to his cause.
4. clearly thought him insane.
concluded that his ideals couldn’t excuse violence.

In 1860, the increasingly confident Republican Party
1. expanded their platform to address other issues.
2. nominated John C. Breckinridge for president.
3. gained popularity in the South.
4. focused on the slavery issue with more intensity than ever.
expanded their platform to address other issues.

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